Groundwater Phytoremediation and Biofuels Production for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge

  • Low concentration of Cr (VI) can be remediated using H. annuus L. which was identified as a hyperaccumulator.
  • Grade A biosolids are applicable as a soil amendment for providing nutrients to the plants, and biosolids were found to be better than low nitrogen fertilizer in terms of plant growth.
  • PCE/TCE were fully removed from the contaminated soil matrix, which might be possibly due to plant uptake, degradation, plant volatilization or soil volatilization.
  • Increased microbial biomass after phytoremediation indicates that the activity of rhizosphere microorganisms was improved which could help the remediation process.
  • The very low concentration of Cr (VI) in the obtained biodiesel makes it a potential source of renewable fuel.